All of them are different expressions of the same fact – the amount of glucose – the main source of energy present in the bloodstream at any given point in time. Establishing what is a normal glucose level is of significant importance, both from medical and lifestyle perspective.
The levels of blood sugar rise and fall naturally within certain limits – a process regulated by the body as part of its metabolic balance.Following intake of food the digestive system processes the carbohydrates and breaks them down into sugar and starch.The sugar in the form of glucose molecules enters the bloodstream.
From there the glucose needs to reach the cells and deliver the fuel needed for the normal functioning of the body.
To this end the pancreas releases insulin, the hormone that regulates the amount of glucose in the blood and ensures its absorption into the cells.
As the sugar enters the cells, the amount of glucose in the bloodstream drops down.
If however the pancreas does not function well, it does not secrete insulin, or the insulin it secretes is not sufficient to push the glucose inside the cell.
The glucose therefore cannot be utilized by the cells.
It stays in the blood stream and its level rises above the limits of the range controlled naturally by the body.
Consistently high glucose levels in the blood can cause one of the most common metabolic conditions – diabetes.
This is largely characterized by a loss of the inherent ability of the body to manage the fluctuations of the blood sugar and correct its spikes and drops, allowing it to settle at abnormal glucose level in the body.
Type 1 diabetes is related to very insufficient or entirely non-existent insulin production in the body.
Type 2 diabetes occurs as a result of inadequate insulin secretion by the pancreas or failure of the cells to utilize the insulin appropriately.
Normal Glucose Level
The standard medical practice to determine a normal glucose level is to carry out blood tests.
The amount of blood glucose can be measured either by a random blood test (when the blood sample is obtained at any time of the day)
or fasting blood test (one performed after refraining from food for a minimum of eight hours).
The amount of glucose present in the blood is measured in milligrams (mg) per deciliter (dL).
A normal glucose level should be below 125 mg/dL.
A level of 200 mg/dL or above is strongly suggestive of diabetes.
Fasting Glucose Level
A fasting glucose level between 70 and 100 mg/dL is within the normal range.
A level above 100 mg/dL and up to 125 mg/dL indicates impaired fasting glucose and points to a risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
A fasting glucose level of 126 mg/dL warrants a diagnosis of diabetes.